The Senegal flag was adopted in a ratio of 2: 3 on August 20, 1960.
Symbolically, green is a symbol of Islam, progress, and hope, yellow is a symbol of natural wealth and red is a symbol of determination and sacrifice. The green star is also a symbol of unity and hope.
The Senegalese flag is similar in color to the flag of its neighboring country, Mali, and in reverse order is similar to the flag of another neighboring country, Guinea.
Under French colonial rule in Senegal, the colonial authorities banned the use of their distinctive colonial flags because they feared that this could increase nationalist sentiment and lead to demands for independence.
With the rise of the colonial movement in Africa, the French were obliged to grant limited autonomy to Senegal as an autonomous republic in French society.
Senegal merged with French Sudan on April 4, 1959, to form the Financial Federation. On that day, a new flag was adopted: three vertical colors green, yellow, and red with a light image of a human (called Kanaga) on the center lane.
The federation gained independence from France on June 20, 1960.
This federation between the two former colonies did not last long and ended two months after independence.
On August 20, Senegal seceded from the federation and became an independent state.
The flag of the new nation retained the colors and stripes of the federation flag, and the only change was the replacement of Kanaga with a green star.
In April 2004, when Mustafa Niasa, the then leader of the Progressive Alliance, hosted a press conference on “the reform of the election law and the establishment of an independent commission to review the legality of the next legislative and presidential elections.”
In the conference code, Nias discovered what he felt was “defending the symbols of the republic against the threat of division and crime against national unity” and “created a visible replacement, in some official documents, of the central yellow-green star.”
“National flag ribbon by a golden daddy”, along with what he described as “non-performance of the national anthem in official ceremonies”
The Senegalese flag has a tricolor design inspired by the French tricolor flag. These three colors, even if they have a basic design, are a great symbol for the people of Senegal. These colors are designed to represent Islam – which is done by most Senegalese people.
Also, these colors are also a symbol of wealth and the product of labor and economic progress, as well as the nation’s sacrifice and determination to fight underdevelopment.
The flag of Senegal has three colors in the tricolor design. There is also a five-pointed green star with the center of the flag. The first color is green, which is said to be the color of Islam, which is practiced by almost 94% of the population.
Yellow is also prominent in the flag and it is a symbol of wealth and economic development of the country.
Red symbolizes the life and sacrifice of the nation as well as the national determination to fight underdevelopment.
The three colors also represent the three political parties that merge to form the Progressive Union of Senegal. These colors are also the colors of Pan-Africa and represent unity among other African nations.
Senegal Flag Color Codes
- Many other African countries use the same colors as the Senegalese flag, including Mali and Guinea.
- The three French colors were the main flag of Senegal. The flag flew over the nation until the new flag was passed in 1960.
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The Republic of Senegal
Senegal, officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Its capital is Dakar. Although Senegal is neither a vast country nor has a strategic position, it does play a prominent role in African continental politics. The country has a population of about 16.7 million.
The French first built a port in Senegal in 1659 and named it Saint Louis. It was liberated from French rule in 1960.
Senegal, a country of more than 90 percent African Muslims, is a cultural bridge between Muslims and the African-Christian world and may have gained political and strategic importance in this way.
Senegal was once the habitat of the Tocoleur people. With the influence of Muslim Arabs in Africa, the Senegalese converted to Islam in the 11th century. The French first built a port in Senegal in 1659 and named it Saint Louis.
The British invaded Senegal for a time, but the French snatched the lead from the British and were able to seize Senegal in 1895 as one of the West African colonies.
Senegal became a French colony in 1946. On April 4, 1960, it declared independence from France, and on June 20, 1960, as an independent republic, it formed a federation known as the “Senegal and Financial Federation”.
The federation did not last long and was dissolved a few months later on August 20, 1960. Senegal joined the Gambia in 1982 to form the Confederation of Senegambia. The union was dissolved seven years later in 1989.
Senegal’s economic reform program has led the country to grow its GDP by 5% in 2018 to $ 24 billion.
17.9% of Senegal’s GDP is related to the agricultural sector, 25.3% to the industrial sector and 56.8% to the service sector. Its per capita national income in 2018 reached $ 1,485.
At the end of 2000, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund agreed to pay part of a $ 34 billion aid package to Senegal to reduce its foreign debt. However, Senegal owes more than $ 3 billion in foreign debt.
Senegal has an annual capacity of about 1.2 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity generated entirely by thermal power plants.
The production of food products, petroleum products, construction materials, and textiles is one of the most important industrial activities in Senegal. Also among the agricultural products of this land, we can mention peanuts, millet, corn, rice, cotton, tomatoes, and vegetables.
Senegal has a workforce of 4 million and the unemployment rate in the country reaches 40%. Phosphate and iron ore make up a large part of Senegal’s mineral reserves and account for a significant portion of Senegal’s exports.
Senegal exported $ 925 million in 1998, mainly to fish, petroleum products, cotton and phosphate. This year, France, Italy, India, Ivory Coast and Mali were the main buyers of Senegal goods.
It also bought $ 1.2 billion worth of goods in 1998, mainly food, consumer goods, capital goods, and petroleum products.
France and other EU member states, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Algeria, the United States, China and Japan are Senegal’s major import partners.
Senegal, like many West African countries, uses the African franc as its official currency. Each US dollar is equal to 647.25 African francs.
The majority of Senegalese people are Wolves, but the Fulani, Serr, Polar and Mandinka ethnic groups also live in Senegal.
The official language is French and its script is French, but the native dialect of Wolof and Polar is prevalent in Senegal. Life expectancy among Senegalese men is 60.6 years and among Senegalese women is 63.82 years.
The literacy rate among men is about 43% and among women is 23.2%
According to 2020 estimates, Senegal has a population of about 16.7 million, of which 45% are under 14 years old and 52% are between 15 and 65 years old.
Senegal’s population growth rate is 2.8 percent. Also, the birth rate of this country is about 37.9 people per thousand people and its mortality rate is 5.8 people per thousand. Senegal has a relative population density of 82 people per square kilometer.
92% of the people of this land are Muslims and Sunnis. About 2% of them are also Christians. Shiites are among the groups in the country that have their own schools and mosques, and their relations with other Muslims and the Islamic sect are very good.
The number of Shiites in Senegal is more than 200,000, most of whom are indigenous Shiites, and the number of Lebanese immigrants is more than 40,000.
192,000 square kilometers of this land is covered by land and 4,712 square kilometers by it is covered by water.
It shares 813 km of Mauritania to the north, 419 km to Bali to the east, 330 km to Guinea to the south, and 338 km to Guinea-Bissau. The Gambia, on the other hand, is 740 km long and is located inside Senegal.
Senegal is a lowland country covered mostly by savannah and steppe grasslands. The climate of this land is temperate on the coasts and highlands, but hot and dry in the steppes.
Senegal’s highest point in the Nepean Diakha region is about 581 meters high. The north and northeast of the country is semi-desert due to their proximity to the Sahara Desert and has a hot and dry climate. Southwest Senegal also has forested areas and its climate is hot and humid.